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Urologic Cancer

Cervical Cancer is one of the India's leading cancers which about a decade ago was ranking at number 1 in terms of new cases of cervical cancer found every year. The incidences of cervical cancer were very high in rural areas, towns, tier-2 cities, villages than in cities or urban areas. Cervical cancer still tops the chart at number 3 in cancer incidences in India, taken over by Breast Cancer in the recent past. According to a report published by Globocan 2018, about 97000 new cases of cervical cancer are found every year in India. Prevalence at 5 years of cervical cancer cases is as high as 2,25.000.

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Cervix is an organ that connects Uterus to Vagina in females. It is a part of female reproductive system. The reason for high incidences of cervical cancer in India is poor hygiene of intimate parts of females, especially in villages, towns due to lack of health and sex education. Maintaining high hygiene of intimate parts of body at a minimum frequency of 3 regularly and before and after intercourse (sexual activities) is of immense importance for females to remain away from Cervical Cancer and other hygiene related infectious and other disease.

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer are

  1. Symptoms of Cervical Cancer are: Between periods, During or after sex, At any time after your menopause
  2. Frequent vaginal discharge having foul smell or bad odor
  3. Pain or discomfort while having sex
  4. Pain in the area between the hip bones (pelvis)

These are the symptoms common for diseases of cervix other than cancer as well. Hence it is important that these symptoms are immediately reported to doctor so that appropriate diagnosis is done and cancer, if it exists is not missed.
It is important that females above the age of 30 should get their cervical cancer screening test done every 2-3 year so that pre-cancerous changes in cervical cells which does not produce immediate symptoms are captured and possibility of developing cancer or cancer at very early stage is identified. Girls below the age of 25 has rare chances of developing cervical cancer. PAP smear test is the most common screening test for cervical cancer. It is available at a very economical cost and it is easy to perform. PAP smear test for cervical cancer can be done by qualified family physician or preferably by gynecologist or a cancer specialist.
There are many risk factors for development of cervical cancer which are as follows.

  1. Age- as females get old, chances of developing cervical cancer increases.
  2. Human Pappiloma Virus (HPV)- It is a virus that can cause abnormal changes in the cells of cervix. This infection gets transmitted during sex or intercourse, like HIV (Human Immune Deficiency Virus). It is the most common cause of cervical cancer development in India. There are 12 types of HPV are identified of which 2 types are responsible for causing 70% of cervical cancers.
  3. Sex- having safe sex with contraceptives like condom can help reduce the risk of sexually transmitted viruses like HPV
  4. Tobacco use- Smoking also increases the risk of cervical cancer development
  5. Contraceptive pills- 10% of the cervical cancer cases found in India are linked to habit of taking regular contraceptive pills
  6. Number of child births- Cervical cancer risk is more in women who has given birth to child the those who haven't.
  7. Family History- those women having members in the family with cancer of vagina, vulva, kidney or urinary tract are at high risk of developing cervical cancer

Surgery is one of the main treatment of cervical cancer. Radical Trachelectomy (Removal of most part of Cervix and upper part of vagina) and Radical Hysterectomy (Removal of Womb) are two important surgeries in the treatment of cervical cancer. Chemotherapy is given along with radiation therapy (together) in cases of cervical cancer. Sometimes, chemotherapy is also given alone, so as radiation therapy. Qualified oncologist / cancer specialist is the best person to have detailed information on cervical cancer treatment.